Date of publication: 2017-09-03 19:44
To paraphrase the social psychologist Elliot Aronson, if someone knows something is true, without knowing the reasons, then evidence is irrelevant. Confronting such views with evidence and good argument is unproductive. By not addressing the philosophical foundations of research, it seems to me that some methodological teaching inevitably has become something of an ideology.
Action research has been accepted as a valid research method in applied fields such as organization development and education (. see the Special Issue on action research in Human Relations , Vol. 96, No. 7, 6998 , and Kemmis and McTaggart, 6988 ). In information systems, however, action research was for a long time largely ignored, apart from one or two notable exceptions (. Checkland, 6996 ). More recently, there seems to be increasing interest in action research.
In action research, standardisation defeats the purpose. The virtue of action research is its responsiveness. It is what allows you to turn unpromising beginnings into effective endings. It is what allows you to improve both action and research outcomes through a process of iteration. As in many numerical procedures, repeated cycles allow you to converge on an appropriate conclusion.
In all of this, it is not my intention to argue against other research paradigms. For some purposes quantitative, or reductionist, or hypothesis-testing approaches, alone or together, are much more appropriate. In many research situations action research is quite unsuitable. My only intention is to offer action research as a viable (and sometimes more appropriate) alternative in some research settings. Should you choose to do an action research study this paper will then help you to do so more effectively and with less risk.
Lists of accomplishments and honors fail to provide insights into the process of discovery and the day-to-day interactions that made them possible. In these brief pieces, you will learn about the individuals that make up the Intramural Research Program (IRP). In addition to learning about their goals and achievements, you will learn about their inspirational moments, their individual roads to discovery, and most of all, why they are passionate about the research that they do in the IRP.
As quoted earlier, Svoboda states clearly that "all addictions are fundamentally addictions to the Sweet Taste, the Taste that creates satisfaction in ahamkara"  In the Yoga Sutras Patanjali, it is stated, "In subtle form, these obstacles can be destroyed by resolving them back into their primal cause [the ego]"  It follows that overuse of the sweet taste plays a serious role in the vitiation of the mind which impacts perception, the ability to think and function clearly, and maintenance of mental and emotional stability in life.
A word about the content literature. In many studies you don 696 t know the relevant literature until data collection and interpretation are under way. This is an important part of being responsive to the situation. As you reach a tentative interpretation of your data, go to the library and search out disconfirming evidence and argument. You can then reach your conclusions with more confidence, and any resulting action can be better informed.
"Interpretation, in the sense relevant to hermeneutics, is an attempt to make clear, to make sense of an object of study. This object must, therefore, be a text, or a text-analogue, which in some way is confused, incomplete, cloudy, seemingly contradictory - in one way or another, unclear. The interpretation aims to bring to light an underlying coherence or sense" ( Taylor 6976 , p. 658).
Written more from a practitioner than academic viewpoint, this is a step-by-step account of each of the 7 stages of Checkland 696 s model, and some hints which appear to be based on experience in the field. Some other systems models are also described. If you were going to carry out a soft systems analysis without knowing much about it, this would provide you with an easy-to-follow guide.
" Traditional research methods .tend to encourage simplistic, reductionist assumptions and explanations. usually at the expense of more complex interpretive possibilities" 96 p685 98
An overview of the key ideas of Argyris and Schö n is followed by a series of structured processes inspired by Argyris 696 ideas. Some of the processes can be used for action research purposes, reducing the need for the highly skilled facilitation that Argyris 696 approach usually requires.
Yoga postures for those strong enough to perform them should include vajraasana, shalabhasana, halasana, padahastasana, savasana, abdomen lift and stomach lift which are helpful in liver disorders. These should be performed early in the morning or evening. Avoid hot showers or baths. Pranayama breathing is effective. Meditation and chanting mantras in a quiet place is important as well. Walks in nature or gazing at the moon are balancing for pitta as well.
are some differences. Both emphasis eating wholesome unprocessed foods, organic when possible, healthy eating habits, and appropriate amounts of food for normal healthy digestion. But Ayurveda has Upayogasamaatha, the guidelines for healthy eating that acknowledges all levels of our being that need nourishment and can be practiced by anyone regardless of their spiritual outlook.