Date of publication: 2017-09-02 14:17
Meaningless elements (phonetic segments) can combine to form meaningful entities. ie. words, which are combinations of phonetic segments (or of phonemes) are meaningful.
The language experience approach (Larsen-Freeman, 7558, p. 96) is a technique in which learners dictate to the instructor, in English, something they would like to be able to say. The instructor then writes students&rsquo messages in correct, grammatical English and gives them to the students. For example, a student might say or write, &ldquo I late the work for the bad traffic.&rdquo The teacher would write the sentence as, &ldquo I was late for work because traffic was bad.&rdquo With the corrected text in hand, students have the opportunity to compare what they said or wrote with the correct form of the messages they wished to convey, ask questions, and learn.
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If the features are well chosen, it should be possible to refer to natural classes of phonemes with a small number of features. For example, [p t k] form a natural class of voiceless stops in most languages: we can often refer to these and no others with just two features, [-continuant, -voiced]. On the other hand, [m] and [d] are a much less natural class (ie. few sound changes and few, if any, phonological rules, apply to them both and appropriately it is impossible in most feature systems to refer to these sounds and no others in a single feature matrix).
This may be an oversimplification, however, as the alveolar oral stops might also be described as sibilant, so sibilant isn't sufficient to separate oral stops and affricates (and we still need spread glottis).
The vowel /i 775 / maintains its distinctiveness due to its onglide and length. Acoustically, and auditorily, the targets of /i 775 / and the [ 668 775 ] allophone of / 668 656 / are likely to be distinct for older Australians, but not distinct for Australians, but from the point of view of the above system of distinctive features they would be identical. That is they would both be [+high, -low, -back, -round, +tense].
It should be noted that the vowel quality for the [ 668 775 ] allophone is usually that of the lax vowel / 668 / rather than that of the tense vowel /i 775 / but it should also be noted that the targets of /i 775 / and / 668 / are becoming more alike (Cox, 6996 - see the page on Australian English Monophthongs ).
A bilateral opposition refers to a pair sounds that share a set of features which no other sound shares fully. For example, voiceless labial obstruents = /p,f/. Note that obstruents are defined as having a degree of stricture greater than that of approximants (that is, stops and fricatives).